Defence and security sectors in several Arab countries have been undergoing significant transformation in recent years, as a result of civil wars, state crisis and fracturing, and external intervention. Fluid coalitions of national armed forces and armed non-state actors are increasingly engaged in complex patterns of de-confliction, coexistence, and cooperation embedded within a wider context of persistent competition and of geopolitical rivalry between an array of external backers. What does this mean for security governance in fragmented states like Syria, Iraq, Yemen and Lebanon? Looking at post-conflict transitions, how the resulting hybridization of security shape sovereignties in these countries? Does talking about civil-military relations still make sense?
On this topic ISPI and the Carnegie Middle East Center have published the Dossier "Hybridizing Security: Armies and Militias in Fractured Arab States"