As a rapidly rising potential superpower, China's recent 19th National Congress of the ruling party has attracted worldwide attention. Along with the remarkable proclamation of China's entry into the “New Era of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics”, the country is witnessing several groundbreaking changes both from a political and an institutional standpoint: the inclusion of Xi Jinping’s “thought” into the Constitution, for example, or the abolition of the two-terms limit for the presidential mandate. What impact will these changes have on China, both internally and as an international actor? What is really new, and what remained unchanged? Any consequences for Europe?