Militias remain fundamental to understand the evolution of the Libyan crisis. This is especially true if we look at the failure of national reconciliation efforts that were based on political or civil figures who have little leverage over those groups able to exert real territorial control in the country. Militias’ role is also pivotal to assess the internal political and military landscape as they directly manage security according to varying – and often conflicting – political interests which emanate from powerful leaders but are also subject to external influences. What kind of interactions do Libyan militias and armed groups have with the country's institutions and society? What is their ideology? How do they get their funding? What do they really want? Can these groups be integrated in a Libyan national reconciliation effort? If so, then under which conditions?