While the war in Ukraine is a game changer for international and in particular European security, China appears to be marching on. And, in some ways, it is true. Since Xi Jinping took power in 2012, China’s foreign policy has significantly shifted from a defensive to an assertive approach. For decades, Beijing worked to integrate into the liberal international order, presenting itself as a peacefully rising power. By contrast, under Xi’s leadership, the country is attempting to create a global system that is more favourable to its own interests.
The Report examines China’s current approach to foreign policy, and the drivers of the country’s shift away from tradition. What are the main characteristics of China’s foreign policy in the wake of the Ukraine war? How are decisions being taken, and to what extent do interest groups continue to have a say in decision-making after the recent power centralisation?
Table of Contents
Introduction, Paolo Magri, ISPI Executive Vice-President
1. The Party-State Dichotomy: Convergence and Divergence in China’s Foreign Policy
Niklas Swanström - Institute for Security and Development Policy (ISDP)
2. Xi’s Foreign Policy and Partial Collegiality
Hongyi Lai - University of Nottingham
3. China’s Decision-Making System and Interest Groups
Yanzhuo Xu - Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS)
4. The Military Clout of China’s Foreign Policy
Flavia Lucenti - University of Bologna
5. Chinese Companies Have a Say on Foreign Policy, Too
Alice Politi - King's College London
6. A Three-Pronged Foreign Policy in the New Era
Axel Berkofsky (ISPI and University of Pavia) and Giulia Sciorati (ISPI and University of Trento)