Although the MENA region has recorded fewer coronavirus cases than other parts of the world, the pandemic adds further strain on a region racked by instability, conflicts and structural weaknesses. In fragile e and war-torn countries like Yemen, Libya, Syria or Iraq, the pandemic is also affecting the role and interests of local non-state actors, raising questions about their actions to tackle the virus, as well as their strategies to influence domestic dynamics in times of COVID-19. How are sub-state armed groups in the MENA's most fragile countries reacting to the current crisis? How do they interact with other internal and external actors? Is this pandemic an opportunity for non-state players to further extend their influence?