Since the outbreak of the pandemic, public debt surged from 103.8% to 120% on average in advanced economies and from 54% to 63.4% in developing countries, with significant differences among them. After the COVID-induced economic crisis, a new financial crisis may arise, wherever it comes from. Debt relief measures for poor countries were launched by the Saudi G20 and have been recently strengthened by the Italian G20 presidency. Are they sufficient or should they be further enhanced? How to alleviate the debt burden in developing and mature economies too, from Latin America to Europe? Should the private sector be further engaged?