In today’s tumultuous and fast-changing times, digitalisation and technology are game changers in a wide range of sectors and have a tremendous impact on infrastructure. Roads, railways, electricity grids, aviation, and maritime transport are deeply affected by the digital and technological transition, with gains in terms of competitiveness, cost-reduction, and safety.
Digitalisation is also a key tool for fostering global commitment towards sustainability, but the race for digital infrastructure is also a geopolitical one. As the world’s largest economies are starting to adopt competitive strategies, a level playing field appears far from being agreed upon.
Why are digitalisation and technology the core domains of global geopolitical competition? How are they changing the way infrastructure is built, operated, and maintained? To what extent will road, rail, air, and maritime transport change by virtue of digitalisation, artificial intelligence, and the Internet of Things? How to enhance cyber protection for critical infrastructure? What are the EU’s, US’ and China's digital strategies?
Table of Contents
Introduction, Carlo Secchi, Alessandro Gili
PART I - TRENDS
1. The Geopolitics of Tech and Digital Space: A Struggle for Future Leadership
2. The Economic Impact of Digital Infrastructure: Understanding and Leveraging the Digital Transition
Seth Benzell (Massachusetts Institute of Technology - MIT), Maxwell Means (freelance data analyst)
3. Digitalisation for Sustainability: A Twin Challenge
J. Scott Marcus, George Zachmann (Bruegel)
4. Changing the Game: The Role of Technology and Data to Increase Infrastructure Efficiency
Monica Bennet (Global Infrastructure Hub)
5. The Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence to Infrastructure: A Game Changer?
Giovanni Miragliotta, Carlo Negri, Alessandro Perego, Alessandro Piva, Giulio Salvadori, Angela Tumino (Politecnico di Milano)
6. Cybersecurity and the Protection of Critical Infrastructure: What is at Stake?
Valentin Weber (German Council on Foreign Relations - DGAP)
PART II - SECTORS
7. Smart Roads and Transport Infrastructure
George Yannis, Apostolos Ziakopoulos (National Technical University of Athens - NTUA)
8. Data and Artificial Intelligence for a Smart Mobility: What’s the Way Ahead?
Nicola Sandri, Stefano Napoletano, Luca Milani, Andrea Ricotti (McKinsey & Company)
9. A New Digital Agenda for Rail Transport
Alberto Mazzola, Ethem Pekin, Matteo Mussini (Community of European Railway and Infrastructure Company - CER)
10. Digitalised and Sustainable Infrastructure for Air Traffic Management
Andrew Watt (EUROCONTROL)
11. Technology and Digitalisation in Maritime Freight and Ports: A Game Changer?
Oliviero Baccelli (Bocconi University)
12. The Role of Smart Grids for Sustainability
Pablo Gonzalez (International Energy Agency - IEA)
PART III – COUNTRIES
13. A New Digital and Technological Sovereignty for Europe: Twin Green and Digital Transitions and Twin Challenges in Sovereignty and Security
Annegret Bendiek, Isabella Stürzer (German Institute for International and Security Affairs - SWP)
14. EIB Financing of Digital Infrastructures for a Green Transition The Challenges in the EU and in the Neighbouring Countries
Gelsomina Vigliotti (European Investment Bank - EIB)
15. Italy's Digital Strategy
Gianluca Sgueo (New York University, Florence)
16. China’s Digital Transition: Balancing Development, Security, and Sustainability to Lead the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Rebecca Arcesati (Mercator Institute for China Studies - MERICS)
17. US Relaunching Competitiveness at Home and Abroad
Julian Mueller-Kaler (Atlantic Council)
18. African Digital Sovereignty: Threats and Remedies
Rafiq Raji (Center for Strategic and International Studies - CSIS)
19. Japan’s Digital Transformation: An Uphill Path
Corrado Molteni (University of Milan)
Conclusions, Carlo Secchi, Alessandro Gili