The EU’s commitment in the field of non-proliferation runs deep and has made significant contributions to the peace and stability Europe has enjoyed since the end of the Second World War. The most advanced instruments for European political cooperation have been used in this delicate sector. The 2003 “Strategy against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction” and the multiplicity of documents and initiatives adopted in its wake, together with substantial financing, allow today the EU to play a leading role in non proliferation and in strengthening treaties adhered to by EU Member States. Still, the EU has some way to go before reaching cohesion on the equally important issue of nuclear disarmament. The diversity of views held by EU delegations in the nuclear field creates obvious difficulties in achieving common positions. But it should also be borne in mind that the EU is a “microcosm” of the multilateral world: a community of countries with different attitudes to the nuclear question. Any solution achieved by the EU could therefore provide a useful benchmark for the international community as a whole.