While Africa and the AU have a long way to go in terms of addressing the causes, triggers and accelerators as well as consequences of conflicts, the AU has, however, shown dramatic increase in its response to the peace and security challenges. Moreover, the AU has also contributed to the surge in democratic profile of Africa and the AU assembly of heads of states.
Africa now faces fewer inter-state wars and more intra-state conflicts and new emerging transnational threats. With more localized manifestations and geographic coverage, current African conflicts are not civil wars that engulf an entire country. Although local, their impact is usually regional and global. International responses and the role of global actors such as the UN and the NATO have been too intrusive. Conflicts could not be handled locally by a state or a community affected, or by the sub-regional organs or regional bodies. As a result, the AU Constitutive Act has increased the interventionist posture of the AU inline with the “African Solutions for African Problems”.
Despite progress, the AU faces serious binding constraints in facilitating the achievement of a peaceful, prosperous and integrated Africa: leadership and management deficiency, lack of the will and commitment to implement already existing policies and treaties. Thus, while the AU has been extremely suc-cessful in the formulation and adoption of norms and institutional frameworks, however, it rather failed in implementing these policies.
In order to remove these deficiencies, the AU needs to swiftly implement these policies in cooperation with member states to increase its impact and relevance on the ground. Through delivery, the AU can gain popularity and legitimacy at grassroots level.