Last month, China’s National People’s Congress voted a constitutional amendment abolishing the two-term limit for the country’s President. Xi Jinping, now in his second term, can therefore extend his political control well beyond his mandate, which was supposed to come to an end by 2023. This represents a significant change within China’s political system, since Xi is expected to further centralize his political power, with major consequences to be felt in the near future. What is Xi Jinping’s guiding political thought behind this reform? How does this constitutional change affect Xi Jinping’s relationship with the Communist Party? How does this constitutional amendment change the State Council? And what does this institutional change mean for China’s economic development, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA), and Beijing’s approach towards Hong Kong and Taiwan?