On 11-12 July, NATO has gathered in Brussels for the 2018 Summit, in the framework of rising geopolitical tensions with Russia. Along with the 2% GDP spending goal, debates a the Summit have largely focussed on the complex relationship with Moscow: what about the South? A number of worrying topics emanate from the Southern flank: states fragmentation, proliferation of ballistic missiles, jihadism and organized crime, uncontrolled migration. New and old powers vie for leverage in the Eastern Mediterranean’s waters, while multiple, sometimes competing stakeholders struggle to find a security balance in North Africa. Is NATO ready to cope with these multidimensional challenges? Is there the willingness to strengthen the Arab partnerships through practical cooperation? What about the new NATO Strategic Direction South Hub in Naples? Assessing the most demanding threats and issues, this ISPI Dossier investigates how the Atlantic Alliance can project stability in its evolving Southern neighbourhood.