In 1994 Russia ratified the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change and subsequently took part in all of its Conferences of the Parties. The Kyoto Protocol, adopted in 1997, was ratified by Russia in 2004. Developed countries, including Russia, have committed themselves to an annual 5% emission reduction compared to 1990 levels. But for Russia, these commitments do not imply a real "environmental breakthrough".
The Arctic has always been very important for Russia. First, it makes up a considerable part of the country’s territory. Second, the region hosts important transport and military infrastructure. Finally, it possesses significant natural resources potential, which is not limited to oil and natural gas, but also includes minerals, timber, fish, and other resources including land itself.
Russia, one of the world’s leading suppliers of fossil fuels, is facing new challenges: as the world is entering a zero-emission path, the country’s future will largely depend on diversification of the country’s economy, including decarbonizing its energy sector.
COVID-19 has further exacerbated the debt situation in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Prior to the pandemic about half of low-income countries (LICs) were at high risk of debt distress or in debt distress, including a large number of LICs in SSA. A shift in the composition of debt from concessional to non-concessional financing needed to finance infrastructure and human capital development contributed to higher debt levels.
In 2013, Chinese president Xi Jinping officially charted the idea of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) during an official visit to Kazakhstan. From mines to railways, China embarked in a large number of infrastructure projects to enhance land and maritime trade connectivity. There was never a clear target in terms of the amount of investments needed for the BRI to be successful, though official estimates hovered between 4 and 8 trillion USD.
The G20 measures in 2020 to support low income countries (LICs) facing unsustainable debt burdens were intended to give nations the space to mitigate consequences of the virus and rebuild their economies in a manner consistent with development and climate goals. It has now become acutely apparent that such efforts were incomplete and inadequate. It is paramount that the G20 build on past work on debt relief and supplement it with new thinking and financing.
On the last Sunday before Easter, the city of Makassar, South Sulawesi, was rocked by a suicide bombing that took place at the gates of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Cathedral while the morning mass was held. Two suicide bombers detonated a homemade, improvised explosive device, wounding around 20 people and killing themselves. In a press conference following the attack, Police General Listyo Sigit Prabowo, Chief of the Indonesian National Police, stated the two suicide bombers were believed to be members of Jemaah Anshorut Daulah (JAD).
Transporting goods by container was one of the most dramatic shapers of globalisation because it let businesses and consumers in North America and Europe benefit from far cheaper labour and production costs in other parts of the world. The development of the world’s major shipping routes, from East Asia to Europe, and from East Asia to the US, in turn enabled the rise in just in time.
During the latter years, the notion of smartness has reached the maritime industry (for example, smart containers, smart supply chains, and smart ports) as an implementation of intelligent decision-making empowered by digitalisation. However, the combination of poor connectivity between ports and limited or no sharing of data about delayed arrivals between the carriers involved perpetuates the culture of first-come, first-served and a consequently low level of predictability for maritime transport.
According to consolidated economic literature, SEZs are exceptional tools for catalyzing foreign direct investments, and especially in developed countries their use has been to introduce facilitations in the commercial logistics sector. Ports and airports are critical to the successful development of Special Economic Zones.