In Yemen, new economically-rooted challenges currently add to longstanding political and economic obstacles facing Security Sector Reform (SSR). The sharp collapse of the currency in the territories held by the Internationally Recognized Government of Yemen (IRG), as well as the global socio-economic impact of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, have compounded historical hindrances to SSR in Yemen, which include—but are not limited to—corruption, an accountability deficit, and poor professionalism.
In both fractured states and relatively stable countries, security sectors across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are facing increasing economic and financial challenges. This contributes to worsening accountability and good governance prospects, potentially shaping the region’s security sector governance — and its trajectory — over the next decade.
Since the fall of Saddam Hussein’s regime, the Iraqi security sector has resembled a field of power centres competing against each other to exert their influence over institutions and play a crucial role in the internal and external dynamics of the “land of the two rivers”. Although the constitution approved in 2005 entrusted the protection of the country to the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF), they had to cope with a complex security scenario from the very beginning, one deeply influenced by the presence of armed groups not entirely under the federal government’s authority.
Syria remains under the repressive leadership of the regime of Bashar al-Assad. The regime’s behaviour makes it impossible for security sector governance to be reformed in Syria in any meaningful way while the regime remains in power.
In Lebanon, the economy and security have gone hand in hand. Like the rest of the public sector, the security agencies have suffered from the economic breakdown since late 2019 on both an institutional and personnel level. They are likely to continue to be affected as the crisis persists over the next few years.
Over the last decade in Tunisia a large number of unions representing police and national guard personnel have been created. These unions have proven to be potent, exerting influence over the Ministry of Interior (MOI) on issues of promotion, pay and deployment, impacting political debates, primarily around security issues, and stymieing oversight efforts by the Tunisian parliament.
Algeria’s military apparatus, the National Popular Army (NPA) — with its diverse cliques and personalities, vaunted counterterrorism experience, and intelligence capabilities — encompasses internal security structures and plays an important (if oversized) role in deterring and dictating the country’s political affairs and policies. The military has been able to subordinate peer groups within significant power structures, be they the political class, technocrats, the business elite, civil society, or the media.
In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the sustainability of security sectors is increasingly affected by economic and financial challenges. After protracted conflicts and multiple economic crises, this trend encompasses both fractured states and relatively-stable countries. In some cases, budgets are reduced or more dependent on international or regional support; in others, salaries are low or even intermittent; too often, good financial governance is threatened by old and new dynamics.
Dopo un’estate di siccità e temperature record, violenti nubifragi si sono abbattuti su Italia, Austria, Francia e Inghilterra, uccidendo 12 persone. In Europa gli eventi climatici estremi sono sempre più frequenti, e ora rischiano di peggiorare la crisi energetica del continente.
On August 15th, 2021, Afghan President Ashraf Ghani fled the country, the Taliban swept into Kabul, and the Islamic Republic’s institutions collapsed. A few weeks later, on September 7th, the Taliban announced an interim government and the re-estalishment of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.