Le tematiche ambientali hanno cominciato a far breccia nell'agenda politica cinese nel 1972 quando a seguito della Conferenza delle Nazioni Unite sull’Ambiente Umano di Stoccolma sono state create le prime istituzioni per la protezione ambientale. Tuttavia, il boom economico che prese avvio nel giro di pochi anni grazie alle riforme avanzate da Deng Xiaoping era costruito su un modello incentrato soprattutto sul raggiungimento di obiettivi di crescita economica.
At a time when economic tremors in China are rippling through world markets and the country – already the second–biggest military spender in the world – is further increasing military spending at double–digit rates, it is essential to assess how far has President Xi gone in fulfilling the “China Dream”. One of his main slogans spells out a specific prophecy of China’s ascendance to cultural, economic and military power by 2049.
Spread across Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran, Kurdistan is one of the hottest geopolitical areas in the Middle East. It is a land inhabited by over 30 million people, representing one of the largest stateless "nations" worldwide.
The Kurds play a crucial role in the region, and the so-called "Kurdish factor" has constantly been a key ingredient of recent Middle East crises: from the wars in Iraq under Saddam Hussein to the fight against the so-called Islamic State. Not to mention the strategic relevance that Kurdistan assumes as one of the oil-richest areas in the region.
What new balances would an eventual victory of Kurds over IS create? What are the long-term goals of the Kurdish community? How to reach a solution to the Kurdish question able to satisfy all the actors involved? Can we envisage a common future for the Kurds or will they remain tied to the political destinies of the countries they live in?
These are just some of the questions that this report tries to answer collecting contributions from leading international experts.
I dati sulla crescita del Pil nel primo quadrimestre del 2016 confermano il malessere che affligge il nordest cinese. Liaoning, Jilin e Heilongjiang, figurano infatti tra le sei province al di sotto della media nazionale del 6,7% e in particolare il Liaoning è l’unica a registrare segno meno (-1,3%) avendo perso 4,3 punti percentuali rispetto alla prestazione del 2015.
Abstract As countries participating in 'Factory Asia' grow more integrated with one another, regional trade agreements have flourished in recent years with the ultimate aim of making production networks in the region work as smoothly as possible. It is more and more important for the EU to secure good trade relations with Asia, the most dynamic area in world trade. To this end it must adopt a coherent trade strategy vis-à-vis the different Asian economies participating in regional value chains in which EU companies are significantly and increasingly involved.
Abstract The EU-Republic of Korea FTA (EU-ROK FTA) has so far been beneficial to both parties, although relatively more so for the EU (as it was already a more open market than South Korea). This has been partly due to the trade liberalisation with the FTA and partly due to macroeconomic factors, such as the slow GDP growth and sluggish demand in the EU, and the Euro depreciation vis-à-vis the Korean Won over the last 5 years. Sectorial developments have also been at work, such as the reduction in Korean output and thus exports in key sectors due to global overcapacity and oversupply, and a cross-border reorganisation of production in sectors that are important in EU–Korea competition. The most important increase in exports from the EU to South Korea has been in transport equipment, more specifically cars and trucks, but the size of the increase is substantially lower than that forecast.
Abstract Asia has considerably increased its regional share on world GDP over the past decade, and this trend is expected to continue. It has become the most dynamic region in international trade and the rapid industrialisation of the area can potentially impact the Asian pattern of trade: a doubling of the share of manufactures in world exports is predicted by 2030, while the share of primary products in world imports is expected to rise. Moreover, regional participation on global value chains has substantially expanded, with the leading role of China.
After a 36-year hiatus, North Korea’s ruling Workers’ Party has opened its 7th Congress in Pyongyang. It follows a “70-day campaign of loyalty” in which everyone was called to work overtime to boost production levels ahead of the Congress. This major political gathering comes as North Korea is facing international condemnations over the last months of military muscle-flexing that have led many outside experts to believe Pyongyang is much closer to having a viable nuclear deterrent than previously thought. Although Beijing is growing frustrated with Pyongyang’s behavior, North Korea won’t be abandoned given its importance as buffer state, shielding China from the U.S. presence in the area. Domestically, the years since Kim took power have moved the country towards increased internal stability and a return to a more “formal” way of running the country, rehabilitating central party institutions and weakening the military’s influence over politics and the economy. The political, economic and personnel changes announced will therefore be closely watched in order to determine how Kim Jong-un’s rule will differ from that of past generations.
The already troubled relations between Seoul and Pyongyang further deteriorated in the first half of 2016, due to a series of dramatic events. The year 2016 began with North Korea’s fourth nuclear test on January 6, which was internationally condemned and led to the adoption of new sanctions against Pyongyang. However, luckily it was not – as Pyongyang claimed - a hydrogen bomb test. One month later, on February 7, Pyongyang launched a long-range missile, claiming that it was putting a satellite into orbit.