After 20 years of civil war, protracted states of conflict are the continuing hallmarks of Somalia. The new institutional landscape created according to the ‘Djibouti Agreement’ of 19 August 2008 has not resolved the crisis because of the lack of a genuine process of political inclusion. While Somaliland and Puntland did not join the Djibouti peace process, Mogadishu’s Transitional Federal Institutions (TFI) have been confronted with increasing attacks and territorial extension by al-Shabaab, the Somali Jihad movement.
Somalia ranks amongst the for-eign policy priorities of Italy, since the colonial times. Italian interests in Somalia are motivated by piracy and by the threat of terrorism, but also by the strategic position Somalia has in the region.
The deadline for the mandate of the transitional federal institutions, which should have expired the coming August, offers a unique occasion to rethink Italy's interests and involvement in Somalia.
Despite the apparent uniformity of the Somali nation, after the death of Siad Barre Somalia en-tered a process of fragmentation that continues to date.
The solutions that the so-called international community has supported and at times has di-rectly promoted do not take into account that there is no unitary solution to the dissolution of the Somali state and that de facto institutions are controlling and governing parts of former Somalia, such as Puntland and Somaliland.