The Russian economy reached the lowest point of its post-communist slump in 1998, when the state defaulted on debt and was forced to devalue the rouble. After that, economic life in Russia got better. Between 1998 and 2007 the Russian economy grew at an average annual rate of 7.0%. Russia’s leaders are now confident and believe that Russia is economically “sovereign” and can fend for itself.
La dissoluzione dell’Urss, avvenuta alla fine del 1991, ha avuto conseguenze particolarmente notevoli in una regione complessa e tormentata come quella caucasica. Il risultato più significativo è stato l’indipendenza di Georgia, Armenia e Azerbaigian, che in epoca sovietica avevano lo status di repubbliche federate.
The East China Sea, encompassing roughly 1,250,000 square kilometres, situated between the eastern coast of China and the Pacific Ocean, is troubled waters.
The migration field has witnessed a remarkable shift in orientation, particularly among those countries apart from the four traditional migration countries of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. Ten, even five years ago, the migration field was dominated by concerns about out-of-control migration flows, about the migration-asylum nexus, and about sealing borders [...] segue https://www.ispionline.it/it/documents/wp_10_2006.pdf
With the election of the new president Russia has entered a new political cycle. This time, however, with the previous president Vladimir Putin remaining on the political scene in the role of the prime minister the balance between the continuity and change in Russia remains unclear.
Since mid '90s, Azerbaijan has traditionally been one of the main Euro-Atlantic partner in the volatile post-soviet region. Building on its relevance as energy producer and key energy transit state, Baku pursued a firm pro-Western foreign policy which facilitated US, NATO and EU engagement in the area.
Turkey was once the perennial candidate for EU membership but now that the membership talks are all but blocked it is pursuing a multivector policy, engaging with neighbours in the Middle East, Caucasus and the Balkans. Relations with nearly all neighbours, with the notable exceptions of Armenia and Cyprus, are thriving cemented by trade and investment links, people-to-people con-tacts, tourist flows, and not least the success of Turkish popular culture.
This paper analyzes the main tasks to be addressed by the Russian leadership as the country experiences the rising costs of economic uncertainty exacerbated by the global financial crisis. The last decade has undoubtedly been characterized by restored statehood, political and social stability, and a powerful energy sector which has allowed Moscow to play a confident role in the international arena. As the prices of oil, gas and other extractable commodities have increased, so has Russia’s economic strength.
Russian foreign policy is driven by national interests; pragmatism has replaced ideology. Russia seems to act according to generally predictable and comprehensible rules and principles. Therefore the country should not be seen as an exception but rather as a normal power and – in due course – a normal great power.