The post-Cold War relationship with Russia should meet Beijing’s expectations. Fifteen years ago, Russia opted for a compromise and both states solved their long-standing border disputes. Today, faced with China’s rise to the status of a superpower, the Kremlin has chosen to embrace and accommodate its neighbour rather than to counterbalance it. Tensions in Russia’s relations with the West as well as numerous sanctions have made Moscow even more dependent on Beijing. Energy resources and arms provided by Russia have helped to fuel China’s growth.
President Xi Jinping’s political and multi-faceted manifesto of the Chinese Dream (zhonguo meng) is considered the hallmark of his administration. Although it may ring a bell of comparison with the previous American Dream, Xi’s slogan has all the characteristics of a national phenomenon deeply steeped in China’s political ideology and traditional culture. The key aspect of the Chinese Dream is the unquestioned centrality of and guiding role played by the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Seventy years after the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), the legacy of great Communist leaders such as Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping remains the “gravity pole” of China’s policymaking efforts, as it guarantees high levels of consistency between the country’s ideology and the dramatic pace of its modernization.
Celebrating both the 44th anniversary of their diplomatic ties and the 16th anniversary of their strategic partnership in 2019, EU-China relations are among the most significant in the global arena. From an economic perspective, the EU and China are the largest exporters in the world, with the two blocs accounting for around 30 percent of global trade.
It was on 20 November 1984 that China dispatched its first Antarctic research expedition team, and by the end of this expedition, the country established its first Antarctic research station, the Great Wall Station on 20 February 1985.
Since the launch of Xuě Lóng 2 (literally, China’s “Snow Dragon 2”) in late 2018, images of Chinese icebreakers on the Polar route of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) have become more and more common on media outlets around the world. Images that leave a sweet-and-sour taste, as they imply that one of the few sanctuaries in the world (that is, the Polar region) is no longer immune to large-scale human activity.
As Earth’s southernmost continent, Antarctica lives by norms of its own. It is a de facto condominium over which seven sovereign states maintain territorial claims, but that is governed by a multilateral Antarctic Treaty System (ATS). China’s growing interests in the “White Continent” have spurred responses from the actors that have much at stake in Antarctica, such as Australia, Brazil and Russia, as well as the European Union.
For a city of only seven million, and one with a high level of development and wealth, Hong Kong has proved a hard place to govern since its reversion to Chinese sovereignty in 1997. An unknown quantity because of the lack of any proper democracy under British rule, we are now much more knowledgeable about what Hong Kong public opinion might be. It can be captured in one word: complex. Hong Kong in 2019 is divided, and frequently erupts in angry outbursts of protests.
International relations and warfare technology have reached such sophistication that they have apparently rendered international wars a relic of the past. For these and other regional reasons, a conflict between China and Taiwan seems impossible to conceive.
Since Xi Jinping took power in 2012, China has become a less open country. Stricter rules and regulations adopted during his presidency, coupled with a more centralized system established after the March 2018 constitutional reform, changed the social and political context, allowing the government to suppress social discontent and increase government control over the population.