This article will focus on the strategic involvement of Russia and China in Iraq’s and Syria’s energy industry, focusing on the National Oil Companies (NOCs) of both countries and their involvement in the most strategic assets of the Middle East, oil and gas. Baghdad’s oil and gas production is fundamental to strengthen the stability of OPEC, while supporting policies against market volatility in the whole world.
In the last five years, the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) have forged the association between China and infrastructure in the global imaginary, and with good reason. With over one-thousand infrastructural projects concluded in over sixty countries, China’s $900 billion project involves 62 percent of the global population. However, Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.
"Downward pressure on the Chinese economycontinues to increase, growth in consumption is slowing, and growth in effective investment lacks momentum.” With these words, China's Prime Minister Li Keqiang announced that Beijing has lowered its target for the country's economic growth this year, blaming the slowdown on a “profound change in the external environment”: a clear reference to the trade war with the United States. According to
If there is one thing that the Chinese leadership hates, it is not being in control of something crucially important. In the context of its authoritarian political system, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) remains in power with no need to compete with another political party. However, regime security remains its number one concern (or core interest) and, more than anything else, it relies on the fact that the party is seen as legitimate ruler.
Over 2018, China’s relations significantly sharpened with both the US and the EU. The most consequential of these is with the US, where the imposition of trade tariffs from later in the year was the first tangible sign that the relationship was entering an era of overt strategic competition.
China’s growth stopped at 6.5 percent in 2018. And the effects of the trade war have not yet been felt. The real crux is the high level of corporate indebtedness. But the authorities do not seem to have adequate solutions.
The process of economic development in China has always been characterized by a remarkable regional heterogeneity due not only to specific amenities and local factors (such as geographical position, demographic structure, resources, and so on), but also to the development policies implemented by central and local authorities over time.
With a population of just over one billion and 400 million individuals, China is facing a demographic crisis that could slow down economic development and threatens social welfare. The leading indicators reveal indeed that the “demographic window” – the stage that helped China to create the conditions for such unprecedented economic growth – is closing.
The establishment of official diplomatic relations between China and Iran dates back only to 1971. Nevertheless, the two countries share a web of economic and cultural interactions rooted in history, which finds in the ancient Silk Road its idealised apogee. A flourishing past, a shared sense of national humiliation, and the idea of a possible alternative world order frame the narrative that backs the Sino-Iranian axis.
Investment in ports is the most visible incarnation in Europe of China’s new maritime Silk Road. In the coming years, China’s footprint in the Mediterranean Sea will continue to expand but will be subject to greater scrutiny and possibly resistance. The adoption of the EU-wide investment screening system in 2019 will help Europe evaluate future investment projects from the perspective of their potential security implications.