To talk about Over-the-Top companies (OTT), like Google or Facebook, and their successful data-driven business model implies the need to take technological development into account. The idea is quite simple and reasonable: new technologies – from big data to machine learning - allowed unprecedented technical possibilities that were not only simply available but also thinkable less than 20 years ago.
The field of privacy and data protection is probably the one where the most interesting moves occurred in the European Union's legal system over the last decades, leading to remarkable political externalities, most notably in the relationship with the United States. If a “Balkanization” of cyberspace did take place, the protection of privacy and personal data offers a privileged standpoint from which to look at how the European Union institutions, and above all the Court of Justice, contributed to such a result.
Russia’s sovereign Internet law, a series of legal acts that came into force in November 2019, has made headlines as a sign of the increasing fragmentation of Internet governance.
The People’s Republic of China (PRC), and more importantly the ruling Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is a major factor in the global information environment. China is both a consumer and a supplier for that network. Some 850 million Chinese people have access to the Internet. China is an integral part of the global supply chain for information and communications technologies (ICT).
Last February, a few days before the presidential election in Togo, around 30 human rights and press freedom organizations sent a letter to the incumbent president calling upon him to maintain the stability and openness of Internet.
The Internet is a decentralised structure whose functioning depends on a series of complementary technical protocols, laws, and international regulations. As a result of this, its well-functioning entails negotiations among a variety of stakeholders, including those responsible for developing digital markets, policies, legal frameworks and technical standards.
‘Cyberspace’ became a UN issue in 1998 when Russia first tabled a resolution on ‘Developments in the Field of Information and Telecommunications in the Context of International Security’ with the aim of starting negotiation of a treaty to regulate the possible use of ICTs in international conflict. Interestingly, what Russia feared most at that time was the ‘development, production or use of particularly dangerous forms of information weapons’, i.e.
Once upon a time there was a space, the cyberspace, which was a common ground: without boundaries and dominating powers, open to anyone who could connect to it. Less than three decades later, however, the panorama has changed radically. The growing geopolitical importance of cyberspace pulled governments into the digital arena.
In occasion of the conference "Living with cyber risk: what kind of collaboration between public and private sector", ISPI held a closed-door informal meeting between Roberto Baldoni, Deputy Director General of the Department of Information for Security (DIS), Presidency of the Council of Ministers, and a selected number of representatives from the main Italian companies.
This report published by ISPI and the Brookings Institution analyzes the challenges to international order posed by the ongoing race for technological superiority. From artificial intelligence and quantum computing to hypersonic weapons and new forms of cyber and electronic warfare, advances in technology have threatened to make the international security environment more unpredictable and volatile – yet the international community remains unprepared to assess and manage that risk.