During the last months the Russian political scenario has dramatically changed. In spite of Putin’s new election, a strong and fighting - though still divided - opposition has appeared. Such an evolution has surprised many observers, mainly because investigations of inner dynamics of contemporary Russia are largely neglected. The fluid situation of the country after the electoral contest is the focus of this ISPI Study, which takes into consideration some remarkable political and social issues of a rapidly transforming Russia (civil society, the Internet, middle class, religion).
On February 2011 Foreign Affairs published an article entitled "Libya's Terra Incognita" underlying that Libya will face the difficult task of repairing a society long traumatized by the Middle East's most Orwellian regime. Libya lacked both legitimate formal institutions and a functioning civil society. The new, post-Qaddafi era, therefore, is likely to be marked by the emergence of long-suppressed domestic groups jostling for supremacy in what is sure to be a chaotic political scene. Today, this incognita can't be solved.
Libya’s road to democracy is paved with obstacles. This wannabe-democracy has to deal not only with the lack of political institutions, state security organizations and police forces but also with the potential emergence of Islamic fundamentalists out of the chaos. However, there are many signals that permit us to be optimistic about Libya’s future. In particular, a key role in Libya’s democratization will be played by Usa and Europe, at the expenses of the other African countries, China and Russia.