When addressing Libya’s natural resources, the first thing that comes to mind is fossil fuels. According to a February 2020 World Bank Group review on Libya’s financial sector, Libya is Africa’s largest oil economy in terms of proven oil reserves. Before the revolution, the oil sector contributed to over 90% of government revenues.
Gli esami di maturità sono alle porte: siete pronti per la prima prova? Il toto-temi è iniziato già da un po’ e le possibili tracce rimbalzano online. Sicuramente non mancheranno quelle legate all’attualità, perciò ecco gli ultimi approfondimenti dei nostri analisti per aiutarvi a scrivere sui principali temi di politica internazionale e darvi spunti utili ai collegamenti interdisciplinari perl’esame di maturità.
Environmental consequences have never been the top priority during wars. Crucially, however, a war’s impact on the environment can significantly increase the number of people affected by hostilities. On February 24th, Russian forces launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine, after having already occupied Crimea and the Donbas region in 2014.
Smart mobility, defined for the sake of simplicity as a personalized ‘service’ available ‘on demand’, providing individuals instant access to a seamless system of clean, green, efficient, and flexible transport to meet all their needs, is a transition affecting the mobility sector, though we cannot call it a revolution yet.
Up until not long ago, research and development efforts around autonomous driving focused on the vehicle. Automobile and technology companies disseminated their vision for futuristically designed vehicles wherein passengers could even sleep during their trips, and which would make mobility fully efficient, safe, clean, and equitable. Over time, following the involvement of other actors (researchers from different fields, administrations, traffic management centres, etc.) in autonomous mobility, this idealistic vision was discarded.
At the international climate change conference, COP26 in Glasgow in November 2021, the British organisers pushed for greater recognition of the impact of road transport on greenhouse gas emissions – and to present the electrification of the automotive market as the solution. Over 100 governments, businesses, investors, and civic organisations signed a declaration committing to accelerating the transition to zero-emissions vehicles.
After a decade of rapid growth, shared mobility has confronted new challenges with COVID-19. Shared mobility refers to transportation modes in which services and vehicles are shared among users. This includes app-based ride-hailing, carpooling, and car-sharing, as well as micro-mobility services such as bikes, e-bikes, and electric scooter fleets.
The war between Russia and Ukraine is triggering a global energy crisis that might push the “green” transition off track. However, tackling climate change was a tough challenge even prior to the conflict. In fact, achieving a successful energy transition not only requires financial resources, but also political and social consensus, as well as policies to mitigate negative short-term effects.
The world’s three largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters – China, the United States, and the European Union – are tackling climate change in their own ways, implying that convergence on climate strategies is not in sight. Differing approaches to emissions reduction, carbon border adjustments, and nuclear power spell geopolitical challenges.
The transition to low-carbon energy systems has the potential to shift geopolitical power, as it will create winners and losers across countries. The clean energy business is certainly lucrative for its winners: the IEA estimates that the transition would create a $1.2 trillion market for clean energy.
With a target of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 and becoming climate neutral by 2050, the European Green Deal sets out the response chosen by the EU and its Member States to tackle climate and environmental challenges.