The European Council is currently working on a revised EU strategy for Central Asia - which should be launched by 2019 - redefining its policy towards the region following the developments that changed its geopolitical landscape in the last decade.
The Madrid Accords of 14 November 1975 ended the Spanish colonization of Western Sahara, sparkling a long conflict which, since then, opposes the Kingdom of Morocco to the Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro (Polisario Front). 42 years later, Western Sahara remains, according to the international law, a non-self-governing territory whose de jure administering power is still Spain. De facto, around 80% of the territory has been annexed by Morocco, whereas the remaining 20% is under the control of the Polisario Front.
The One Belt One Road (OBOR) Initiative reflects China’s growing need for deeper engagement with the regions to its west and south – through intensified trade, investment, telecommunication, and infrastructure – as well as a grander vision for Chinese foreign policy. Encompassing over 60 countries, in an area covering mainly Asia and Europe, but also Oceania and East Africa, OBOR faces immense challenges, not only from a political and operational perspective, but also from a financial standpoint.
The EU is struggling to cope with the so-called “migration crisis” that has emerged over the past few years. Designing the right policies to address immigration requires a deep understanding of its root causes. Why do Africans decide to leave their home countries? While the dream of a better life in Europe is likely part of the explanation, one also needs to examine the prevailing living conditions in the large and heterogeneous sub-Saharan region.
The next 1st of October will be a pivotal moment in Spanish constitutional history in light of the Catalan "Llei del referèndum d'autodeterminació", which regulates the holding of a binding self-determination referendum on the independence of Catalonia.
Recent political events – from Trump’s election to the outcome of the Brexit Referendum - have somehow caught the world by surprise, and are contributing to a growing sense of concern or even alarm about the future of the Western world and, particularly, Western democracies as we know them.
Figure 1. Access to electricity and non-solid fuels in Africa (Source: AEEP Status Report Update 2016)
In a moment of geopolitical uncertainties, fluid changes on an international level, and increase fo-cus on terroristic threats, this article wants to discuss the possible risks for energy infrastructure and examine how grave they are. Speaking with representative of the industry, think tanks, and academia, we try to shed special light on the infrastructures in Turkey and in the nearby region.
In the last few months, lots of discussions have revolved around the economics and politics of the proposed Nord Stream II project. Nord Stream is a gas pipeline bringing Russian natural gas directly to Germany through the Baltic Sea, allowing Moscow to bypass European transit countries such as Poland, Belarus, and crisis-hit Ukraine. Nord Stream II would double the pipeline’s current capacity, from 55 to 110 billion cubic metres per year (bcm/y).