Much of the current framework for the multilateral protection of human rights can be traced back to the 1990s and early 2000s. At that time, the most serious challenge for human rights advocates seemed to be finding a way for international actors to intervene when ethnic violence within a state led to mass atrocities. Against a background of the dominance of the Western liberal democratic powers in international politics, the pressing questions were about political will and the legitimacy and mechanisms of international action.
For developing countries multilateralism with the UN at its centre, is considered a key pillar of the global system because it provides for an order, not determined by might but by a set of rules that apply to all – even if the powerful often have more latitude than smaller countries. Multilateralism’s current retreat necessitates a proactive strategy from developing countries to be co-shapers of a new system.
Multilateral Institutions seem increasingly unable to provide shared, fair and effective solutions to today’s common needs, while newly-created organizations compete with them. What are the root causes of the current crisis of the global liberal order? How could this impact international trade and economic growth, as well as international and regional security? How can multilateralism be defended and re-launched?
Dopo la negativa esperienza dei governi a guida democratica (2009-2012), il Giappone è tornato al passato e punta al proprio rilancio scegliendo la stabilità e la tradizione degli esecutivi liberaldemocratici (LDP). La maggioranza conseguita dai conservatori è stata netta e ha attribuito al nuovo governo e alla coalizione di centro-destra un mandato forte per poter governare e provare a cambiare radicalmente il paese, stretto com’è tra deflazione economica e immobilismo politico.
On July 20th 1969, the dominoes were lined up for the first moon landing in the history of humankind. Impressive new technologies (illustrated by the Saturn V rocket launcher, still the most powerful ever built), an unconditional trust culture within NASA, political commitment and justification, and personal motivation of those involved were key components for the success of the mission. With 400,000 people working on the project, it took the NASA less than two years to go from Apollo 1’s deadly fires to 11’s moon landing.
The first of December (Antarctica Day) 2019 will not only mark the 60th anniversary of the adoption of the Antarctic Treaty; it will also mark the 10th year since the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty. This second treaty furthered the EU on its path towards becoming a major actor on the global stage by establishing inter alia the function of High Representative and the European External Action Service (EEAS), the EU’s own diplomatic network.
Australia is one of the founders of the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), a claimant state and the country that, together with France, contributed the most to the birth of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty.
Some have seen Brazil’s recent increased interest in the South Atlantic as also involving a growing interest in Antarctica.
When a huge iceberg broke away from Antarctica in 2017, the New York Times reported that “maps will need to be redrawn”. The 7th continent is warming due to climate change, and it is on its way to becoming more accessible and habitable by the end of the 21st century.
It was on 20 November 1984 that China dispatched its first Antarctic research expedition team, and by the end of this expedition, the country established its first Antarctic research station, the Great Wall Station on 20 February 1985.