On June 24 Turkish citizens will vote for both presidential and parliamentary elections on the same day for the first time. These elections are crucial for Turkey. First, the vote will complete the transition started with the April 2017 constitutional referendum and mark the transformation of Turkey from a parliamentary system into a presidential republic a year and a half ahead of schedule.
On 13 June, the Saudi-led coalition started airstrikes on Hodeida, the biggest urban centre of Yemen’s Western, Red Sea coast. A city of 600.000 inhabitants, Hodeida is controlled by the Iranian-backed Huthi insurgents since 2015.
Almost seven years after the 2010-11 uprisings, the Arab armies face new threats and tasks. Polarization marks the Middle Eastern system of power, driven by the Saudi-Iranian rivalry for regional hegemony. The fall of the “Caliphate” as territorial entity poses question marks regarding security governance in post-Daesh areas. In 2011, the armies were decisive actors for regime change, continuity or counter-revolution: but what happened later?
Almost seven years passed since the beginning of the so-called “Arab Spring” and Algeria remains one of the most stable countries in the region. However, the country is facing the consequences of the high instability in neighboring Tunisia, Libya and the Sahel that reached its territory in 2013 with the spectacular attack of the Ain Amenas Gas facility. During this attack, 800 people were held hostage by the international commando of Mukhtar Bel Mukhtar.