On 17 August the historic signing of the Political Agreement and Constitutional Declaration by the Transitional Military Council (TMC) and the Forces for Freedom and Change (FFC) paved the way for Sudan’s political transition. A joint civilian-military Sovereign Council and a transitional government, led by senior economist and former deputy executive of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), prime minister Abdalla Hamdock, will lead the transition.
On 3 June, the last day of the Islamic holy month of Ramadan and eve of Eid al-Fitr, Sudanese security forces violently attacked participants in the two-month-long peaceful sit-in outside army headquarters in Khartoum. According to the Central Committee of Sudan Doctors, more than a hundred protesters were killed and hundreds more were wounded.
The political situation in Sudan since the ouster of President Omar al-Bashir has gradually become more readable and less unpredictable. In the last few weeks, the main stakeholders came to the forefront of the political stage, asserting their objectives and hinting about their political strategies through their tactics and demands.
In an official statement on April 14, the emir of Abu Dhabi and president of the United Arab Emirates, Khalifa bin Zayed al Nahyan, announced his support for the military council in charge of guiding the post-Bashir transitional period in Sudan. He also promised “to explore the prospects of accelerating aid for the brotherly people of Sudan”.
Initially, it was called the “bread revolution” but soon the wave of protests that is currently inflaming Sudan led to an unprecedented uprising against the 30-year dictatorship of President Omar al-Bashir.
With the independence of South Sudan on the 9th of July 2011, the Horn of Africa as a whole , besides the two Sudans, is facing an array of challenges. The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement that lead to the independence of Juba from Khartoum leaves some of the most contentious issues behind the civil war still open, both in the relationship between the two Sudans and within (Northern) Sudan. The main issues concern the division of resources (oil and Nile waters), the state of the internal conflicts in Sudan, borders (including the Abyei region) and citizenship.