Massimo Lombardini is an Associate Research Fellow at the ISPI Energy Security Programme. Between 1982 and 1993, he worked in the industry, mainly in the energy sector. In 1994, he joined the Directorate General of Energy of the European Commission where he worked on issues related to energy such as international relations, energy infrastructures, technology EU energy policies. In August 2019 he retired from the European Commission and since then he writes articles. He holds a degree in Geological Sciences from the University of Milan and a Master in International Politics from the Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB).