With the independence of South Sudan on the 9th of July 2011, the Horn of Africa as a whole , besides the two Sudans, is facing an array of challenges. The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement that lead to the independence of Juba from Khartoum leaves some of the most contentious issues behind the civil war still open, both in the relationship between the two Sudans and within (Northern) Sudan. The main issues concern the division of resources (oil and Nile waters), the state of the internal conflicts in Sudan, borders (including the Abyei region) and citizenship. Therefore, the risk of an internal strife and external conflict remains very high with ensuing consequences on the stability of the region. Moreover, the Horn of Africa, which is already suffering from endemic conflicts and has recently been hit by the worst famine in the last 60 years, has experienced the only two secessions occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa since the end of colonialism: Eritrea and South Sudan. The fragility of the instituions of the post-colonial African states are more evident in this area of the continent than anywhere else. The fate of the South Sudan experience, measured in terms of the accountability relationship with its citizens and in terms of the relations it manages to build with its neighbors, could set an important step (backward or forward) for the region as a whole.
Scarica: Assessing South Sudan independence in a regional perspective, March 2012