Energy transition is becoming a key component of the policy agendas of several North African countries. This region is one of the most affected worldwide by climate change and ambitious projects have been already planned. However, their implementation is threatened by economic challenges (dependence on fossil fuels, the importance of the energy sector for fiscal revenues and exports). These challenges are further heightened by political instability and security issues. But energy transition also offers significant opportunities. On the domestic side, by overcoming structural limits to development (lack of diversification and unemployment). On the external side, by contributing to regional cooperation with neighboring countries. What are the prospects for energy transition in the region? How to make it work at full steam? What is the potential of this transition for regional cooperation?