By the time Trump’s trade war against China started on July 6th, allegedly aiming at reducing the US trade deficit vis-à-vis China, it had been evident that the real culprit for the current confrontation was not the deficit per se, but Xi Jinping’s ambition to make China a high-tech powerhouse in a number of sectors by 2025 and thereby challenge the US global technological leadership. With Made in China 2025 (MIC2025) China indeed aims to become a world leader in advanced technological sectors, while also turning into a strong military force (by 2049). Based on this double objective, the Chinese government has encouraged a deeper “military-civilian fusion”, necessary to increase Chinese strategic competitiveness both at the industrial and military level. What does MIC2025 mean for China’s national development? How is it merging the civilian and military sectors? What are the implications for international competition and the Sino-US confrontation?