In Saudi Arabia, “Vision 2030” and Mohammed bin Salman Al Saud’s economic and social reforms affect also the geographical peripheries of the kingdom. Some of these provinces present long-time economic and social inequalities with respect to the political centre, showing also distinct features in terms of culture and, sometimes, confessional identity. Borderland areas are also connected for kinship and networks with troubled neighbouring states (from Yemen to Iraq), with implications for border security. Adopting the geographical prism, this ISPI Dossier analyses how Riyadh’s peripheries are coping with transformation “from above”, redefining local balances. How are royal reforms imaging and changing Saudi peripheries? What is the impact of Saudi policies on centre-periphery relations, patterns of economic development and recruitment in the border guard? What about the relationship between Saudi top-down nationalism and local identities?