The impact of climate change on conflict and security is increasingly attracting the interest of the international community. Academic and policy circles agree that climate change per se is not a direct cause of conflict and insecurity; failure of governance and poverty are, in most instances, core causes of conflict. However, evidence suggests that natural resources and climate change-induced environmental stress can play an important role in increasing insecurity. Climate change can act as “threat multiplier” by undermining the capacity of weak states to perform their core functions and increasing competition over scarce resources. Africa, where resources-dependency is high and the greatest number of fragile states is found, is particularly “at risk”. Conflict prevention and peacebuilding strategies must be informed by an understanding of climate change issues. Actions targeting climate change, particularly in vulnerable regions, must be conflict sensitive.