Much has been achieved in the Western Balkans since the end of the Yugoslav Wars, yet much remains to be done. The current hard-won stability is something to rejoice at, but severe causes for concern still abound. All this occurs at a time when the EU’s influence in the region appears to be declining, also due to the EU’s decision to postpone any further enlargement to 2025 at the earliest. The EU Summit in Sofia on May 17 aimed to give new impetus to relations between the EU and the Western Balkans, but other actors – mainly Russia, Turkey, and China – have already stepped up their presence in the region. This dossier analyses some of the most prominent challenges, be they country-specific or common to the region. What will the future hold for the Western Balkans? Does the region risk sliding back into chaos? Or is it set on a stable path towards the EU?