Se nel 2011 a pesare sullo spread erano i dubbi sulla tenuta della moneta unica, ora è l’unione bancaria incompleta. Quale ruolo per BCE e Commissione?
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Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has provided a brutal reminder to the world—but especially to the West—that hard power matters and that employing military means to alter political realities has not been relegated to a distant past. For countries in the Middle East and North Africa, this is something with which they have lived for decades, and their response to the war in Ukraine has generally been to remain neutral and pursue their own interests.
The Russian invasion of Ukraine, which began on February 24, 2022, has served to accentuate ongoing differences between the United States and Europe on the one hand and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) on the other. This has, to some extent, benefited Russia’s relations with the MENA region at the expense of the United States and Europe. But the impact of the Russian invasion may eventually prove harmful to Russia’s influence in the MENA region.
For several months, the international community seemed to have forgotten Libya and the decade-long instability that has been ravaging the largest energy-exporting country in North Africa since 2011. Until last Friday, when a group of protesters stormed the parliament building in the eastern city of Tobruk, while other demonstrations spread across all the main cities.
In March, the establishment of a new administration parallel with Abdelhamid Dbeibah’s United Nations-backed Government of National Unity (GNU) caught global attention, as Libya slipped back to an era of explicit political divisions. However, the timeline and fault lines of this crisis predate the appointment of Fathi Bashagha’s parallel Government of National Stability (GNS), which is supported by the House of Representatives (HoR, Libya’s parliament). Instead, the roots can be traced to the battle to control Libya’s budget throughout the last eighteen months.
The crisis in Libya has often been described as a proxy war, that is, a conflict where foreign actors support and equip a certain faction or a number of factions in a third country and exert all efforts to see their faction(s) overcome the others and ascend to power. The purpose is obviously to expand a country’s power and influence.
The “warrior prince” Mohammed bin Salman al-Saud seems to have decided to play the ′alliance-maker` card. As the US President Joe Biden’s visit to Saudi Arabia approaches, Riyadh has rediscovered diplomacy, sending significant signals to Israel. Foreign policy and leadership rebranding overlaps in Riyadh now.
A maggio la Germania ha fatto segnare il primo deficit commerciale dal 1991, l’anno successivo alla riunificazione. È la simbolica fine di un’era, cominciata negli anni Duemila, con l’apertura di un surplus commerciale che aveva raggiunto i massimi nel 2014, in piena crisi dell’euro.
La Nato ha attraversato negli ultimi trent’anni un profondo processo di trasformazione attraverso il quale ha aggiornato i suoi strumenti militari e la sua postura strategica. L’allargamento dell’alleanza e la fitta rete di partnership strategiche con paesi non membri è una delle dimensioni più rilevanti di questo processo di trasformazione successivo alla fine della guerra fredda.