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In occasione della morte della regina Elisabetta II riproponiamo dal nostro archivio un articolo di John Julius Norwich, storico e già deputato alla House of Lords – che è mancato nel giugno 2018.
On the occasion of the death of Queen Elizabeth II we publish an article from our archive by John Julius Norwich, historian and former member of the House of Lords. John Julius Norwich passed away in June 2018.
In Yemen, new economically-rooted challenges currently add to longstanding political and economic obstacles facing Security Sector Reform (SSR). The sharp collapse of the currency in the territories held by the Internationally Recognized Government of Yemen (IRG), as well as the global socio-economic impact of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, have compounded historical hindrances to SSR in Yemen, which include—but are not limited to—corruption, an accountability deficit, and poor professionalism.
Since the fall of Saddam Hussein’s regime, the Iraqi security sector has resembled a field of power centres competing against each other to exert their influence over institutions and play a crucial role in the internal and external dynamics of the “land of the two rivers”. Although the constitution approved in 2005 entrusted the protection of the country to the Iraqi Security Forces (ISF), they had to cope with a complex security scenario from the very beginning, one deeply influenced by the presence of armed groups not entirely under the federal government’s authority.
In Lebanon, the economy and security have gone hand in hand. Like the rest of the public sector, the security agencies have suffered from the economic breakdown since late 2019 on both an institutional and personnel level. They are likely to continue to be affected as the crisis persists over the next few years.
Over the last decade in Tunisia a large number of unions representing police and national guard personnel have been created. These unions have proven to be potent, exerting influence over the Ministry of Interior (MOI) on issues of promotion, pay and deployment, impacting political debates, primarily around security issues, and stymieing oversight efforts by the Tunisian parliament.
Algeria’s military apparatus, the National Popular Army (NPA) — with its diverse cliques and personalities, vaunted counterterrorism experience, and intelligence capabilities — encompasses internal security structures and plays an important (if oversized) role in deterring and dictating the country’s political affairs and policies. The military has been able to subordinate peer groups within significant power structures, be they the political class, technocrats, the business elite, civil society, or the media.
On August 9th, Kenya will hold its seventh national election since the reintroduction of multiparty competition in the early 1990s.
Kenya’s upcoming election adds to the uncertainty coming from the international landscape. Typically, elections are not a painless affair in the East African country. Violence is not necessarily part of the outcome, but the departure of President Uhuru Kenyatta, at the end of his second term and no longer eligible for re-election, makes the unfolding scenario highly unpredictable.
The Kenya general elections will be held in early August – when Kenyans will have an opportunity to elect a new President and representatives to the National Assembly, Senate, and devolved County Assemblies. These elections will be Kenya’s seventh since the introduction of multi-party politics in 1992, and the third since the promulgation of a new constitution that significantly altered the structure and architecture of the Kenyan state in 2010.