Urbanization is set to shape our century. Today, 3.8 billion people – more than half of the Earth’s population – live in cities. In 2050 people living in cities will probably reach 70% and their number will be larger than the current total world’s population. The challenges posed by this phenomenon are immense, as are the opportunities.
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In President Donald Trump’s first year in office, U.S. policy relating to supporting democracy abroad became starkly divided. At the level of “high policy”—direct engagement and messaging by President Trump and his principal foreign policy advisers—the United States sharply downgraded its global pro-democratic posture. Trump’s praise of dictators, criticism of democratic allies, and anti-democratic actions at home recast the United States as at best an ambivalent actor on the global democratic stage. Yet at the same time, pro-democratic “low policy”—quiet but serious engagement by U.S.
At the end of 2016, the outgoing Obama administration issued several decisions and executive orders as part of countermeasures designed to punish Russia for its interference in the US Presidential election. Following up on its experience with similar measures against Chinese and Iranian cyber experts, the US government published a list
Crime exists since the beginning of human society, and cybercrime exists since the beginning of the digital society. However, as noted by the European Commission in the introduction to the Cybersecurity Strategy of the European Union : "Recent years have seen that while the digital world brings enormous benefits, it is also vulnerable. […] The EU economy is already affected by cybercrime activities against the private sector and individuals.
Looking at political debates and perceived priorities, it seems that the coming NATO Summit will focus on the Eastern flank.
At the same time, the 11-12 July Summit will give the operative kick-start to the NATO Strategic Direction South (NSD-S) Hub, based in Naples and opened in September 2017.
The "Indo-Pacific" is a strategic construct that arose at a time of a potential transition in the Asian security order.
The "Indo-Pacific" is the geopolitical referent for the Trump administration’s foreign policy toward Asia – East, Southeast and South – and the Pacific. Since it was first articulated in November 2017, the concept has taken on a more normative tinge and is now an integral part of the larger "Free and Open Indo-Pacific Strategy”. As much is implicit in the phrase as is explicit, however, and those assumptions are perhaps even more important.
In a recent ISPI article, Valbona Zeneli wrote that, despite other big actors at play, the European Union is the only game in town in the Western Balkans (WB). Is it really so? A review of the activities of the three most important non-EU players in the region - Russia, Turkey and China - points us in another direction.
In 2015, the Kosovar Parliament passed a law to establish a Special Court in The Hague in order to investigate war crimes perpetrated in Kosovo between January 1998 and December 2000.