In 2009, Timothy Thomas, a Russia expert at the Foreign Military Studies Office at Fort Leavenworth in the US warned that “[p]erhaps more than any other country, Russia is alarmed over the cognitive aspects of cyber issues as much as their technical aspects”.
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Legitimacy is critical for any government, particularly one seeking to stabilize a country affected by conflict. The legitimacy deficit among Libyan national institutions, such as the Presidency Council, House of Representatives, and High State Council, is increasingly apparent. Internationally-supported efforts to hold national elections in Libya are an effort to address this legitimacy deficiency. However, elections originally set for late 2018 have been abandoned under a new UNSMIL-led initiative to hold them in spring of 2019.
Unseaworthy dinghies, swinging in rough seas, having to withstand the weight of men, women, and children. Hundreds of thousands of people, marching together towards Hungary’s barbed-wire fences. European diplomats, desperately looking for a way to manage the chaos. Soldiers at the borders, crammed reception centres, shoes washed up on shores.
Urbanization is set to shape our century. Today, 3.8 billion people – more than half of the Earth’s population – live in cities. In 2050 people living in cities will probably reach 70% and their number will be larger than the current total world’s population. The challenges posed by this phenomenon are immense, as are the opportunities.
In President Donald Trump’s first year in office, U.S. policy relating to supporting democracy abroad became starkly divided. At the level of “high policy”—direct engagement and messaging by President Trump and his principal foreign policy advisers—the United States sharply downgraded its global pro-democratic posture. Trump’s praise of dictators, criticism of democratic allies, and anti-democratic actions at home recast the United States as at best an ambivalent actor on the global democratic stage. Yet at the same time, pro-democratic “low policy”—quiet but serious engagement by U.S.
At the end of 2016, the outgoing Obama administration issued several decisions and executive orders as part of countermeasures designed to punish Russia for its interference in the US Presidential election. Following up on its experience with similar measures against Chinese and Iranian cyber experts, the US government published a list
Crime exists since the beginning of human society, and cybercrime exists since the beginning of the digital society. However, as noted by the European Commission in the introduction to the Cybersecurity Strategy of the European Union : "Recent years have seen that while the digital world brings enormous benefits, it is also vulnerable. […] The EU economy is already affected by cybercrime activities against the private sector and individuals.
Looking at political debates and perceived priorities, it seems that the coming NATO Summit will focus on the Eastern flank.
At the same time, the 11-12 July Summit will give the operative kick-start to the NATO Strategic Direction South (NSD-S) Hub, based in Naples and opened in September 2017.
The "Indo-Pacific" is a strategic construct that arose at a time of a potential transition in the Asian security order.