Two mass protests in June 2020 in Mali’s capital Bamako shook up the country’s politics, threw the government of President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta on the defensive, and precipitated international efforts to forestall what at least some of the protesters are calling for – Keïta’s resignation. A third mass demonstration may occur on 10 July.
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Already in the 1990s, Jeremy Rifkin was predicting an industrial revolution in which we would abandon fossil fuels and satisfy our energy needs with hydrogen. Thirty years later, Rifkin's revolution has still not happened and hydrogen has been a kind of ‘sleeping beauty’ in the energy arena.
Hydrogen has undeniable advantages as its combustion produces energy but no greenhouse gases. Moreover, burning hydrogen does not generate pollutants such as particulates, NOx and SOx.
Since 2017, Russian private military companies (PMC), such as the Wagner Group, have played a prominent role in facilitating the expansion of Moscow’s geopolitical influence in Africa. On the heels of Russia’s use of PMCs in Ukraine and Syria, Russia deployed Wagner Group PMCs to Libya in 2017, in order to facilitate Libya National Army (LNA) chieftain Khalifa Haftar’s ambitions for territorial expansion.
Since Russia annexed Crimea in 2014 without firing a single shot, former Soviet States in the area – particularly the Baltic countries – have been increasingly worried by the idea they could be ‘the next’ target of an hybrid war operated from Moscow with some form of occupation as their objective.
Researchers are still divided on the need to use the term ‘hybrid warfare’. Focusing on the essence of conflicts may be a far more productive approach than getting lost in endless debates about labels.
After the massive defeat of the Libyan National Army (LNA) at the hands of Operation Burkan Al-Ghadab (Volcano of Rage) - which supports the internationally recognized Government of Accord (GNA) - the new frontline is just west of Sirte, a city 370 km southeast of Tripoli and 350 km southwest of Benghazi, strategically located at the entrance to Libya’s Oil Crescent.
“La Germania è consapevole della propria responsabilità nei confronti dell’Unione europea”. Lo mette nero su bianco la cancelliera Angela Merkel in apertura del programma del proprio semestre di presidenza del Consiglio Ue. E non è cosa da poco per un paese che è sempre stato un leader europeo recalcitrante e a intermittenza. È sintomatico di una presa di coscienza di Berlino se non dell’opportunità, quanto meno della necessità di una leadership forte in questo momento.
Starting from July 1st, Israel was expected to initiate the annexation of Jewish settlements in the occupied West Bank, in what would be a major – and highly controversial – act. Detailed in US President Donald Trump’s “Middle East plan” released in January, the move was announced as part of the agreement that returned Benjamin Netanyahu to office as head of Israel’s national unity government in May. Questions are mounting over whether Israel may delay the deadline for annexation.
Among many things Israel’s political rivals disagree about, Benjamin Netanyahu and Benny Gantz were brought together to form an emergency government after a third election was held inMarch 2020. The annexation of lands in the Palestinian West Bank was one issue they fundamentally agree about based on their coalition deal. The repercussions of this bold decision can be disastrous for all stakeholders.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu’s decision to annex large stretches of the occupied territories in the West Bank caused Iran’s Deputy Foreign Minister to condemn the plan in a