Ten years after the Arab uprisings, Arab armies are in a state of flux. They played a pivotal role in shaping post-2011 political outcomes and, today, the military is even more influential in crafting power relations. However, the fracturing — or de facto crises — many Arab states have experienced also affects, and sometimes reduces, their role, prompting military forces to re-invent themselves in the current security hybridization age.
In Mali i militari detengono il presidente e il primo ministro. A soli nove mesi dall’ultimo golpe, le notizie da Bamako scuotono il paese e rischiano di precipitarlo in una crisi con effetti imprevedibili sul Sahel.
Più di 8.000 migranti sono arrivati in Spagna nel giro di due giorni. Sembra strano, ma lo hanno fatto senza metter piede su suolo europeo, almeno geograficamente: sono entrati a Ceuta che, come Melilla, è un’exclave spagnola in Nord Africa che confina con il Marocco.
Stupri e assedio come arma di guerra nel nord dell’Etiopia. E il patriarca ortodosso denuncia “un genocidio” contro la popolazione tigrina, ma il conflitto resta ‘invisibile’ agli occhi della comunità internazionale.
The deadlock pitting the President of the Somali Republic, Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed, elected in 2017, against various political and clan interests as well as a number of federal states is far from being resolved. The elections scheduled for February 8, 2021 were never held and the president rules by fiat that is helped by the fractured nature of the opposition. The unsettled domestic political situation in Somalia leaves little room for optimism that the previously agreed upon September 17, 2020 electoral model will be implemented.
In 2006 the Islamic Courts Union (ICU) – of which al-Shabaab was initially part before becoming the remaining ‘faction’ – introduced a new chapter of governance in Somalia based on its interpretation of the Shari’a (Islamic Law). Using Islam as its foundation and claiming to introduce a ‘purely’ Islamic government in Somalia, al-Shabaab brought a different perspective to the Somali governance that dominated since 1991 (end of the government of Siad Barre) creating a foothold for clan and sub-clan aligned warlords.
Thirty years ago, on May 18th, 1991, the Republic of Somaliland declared independence. This separation from Somalia, which had not been legally prepared and was not politically supported by any other state, certainly was a bold move back then. For over a decade it was impossible to predict what would really come out of the secession. But today it is clear: Somaliland is one of the most stable de facto states in the world: it has a clearly demarcated territory (at least on paper), a permanent population, and a legitimate government.