L’ambiente cibernetico è diventato il sistema nervoso dei paesi altamente informatizzati, in quanto collega tra loro le dimensioni politico-strategica, militare, economico-finanziaria, commerciale, industriale, infrastrutturale e sociale. All’interno di questa realtà, in continua trasformazione, il problema della sicurezza coinvolge tutti indistintamente: singoli cittadini, istituzioni e attori privati.
The Covid-19 pandemic has affected countries globally regardless of regime type. Nonetheless, for an extended period throughout this pandemic, non-democratic regimes seemed to have performed better than democracies.
In 2009, Robert Kaplan published an article on Foreign Policy with the eloquent title “The Revenge of Geography” emphasizing that geography, despite the many theories that gave it up for dead, continues to be an integral element of international relations.
Knowledge drives productivity and economic growth. Data are, in the least, a vital resource for every instrument of power.
Figure 1 the data, information, knowledge, and wisdom (DIKW) construct
The rapid evolution of the technological landscape is re-shaping dynamics between governments and private actors. The governments that invested more heavily in technologies such as big data, 5G, artificial intelligence, and quantum computing have already reached strategic advantages on other countries.
The sovereignty of a state is contingent upon its ability to master the technological landscape, and here, data is the new power.
The world’s political and corporate leaders tend to agree that high intensity, training quality data frames (TQD) embedded through Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems are progressively permeating all aspects of our lives. The current technologies, grounded on sophisticated algorithms and big data, have become of strategic importance for countries and for leading corporations worldwide. The TQD has demonstrated to be one of the most transformative human-built forces in the current days.
The development of emerging technologies, the increasing centrality of data to nation-state power, and the possibility of concentration of social, economic, and political influence by a few elite platforms are pushing dramatic shifts in the way the technologies and data use are envisioned and governed. Data and technology are now increasingly being configured around national politics, laws, and interests and are at the heart of geopolitical and diplomatic negotiations.
Over the past decade, China and the United States have engaged in a race for the new “gold” of the 21st century: data. As the escalation of state-sponsored cyberattacks during the Covid-19 pandemic has shown, nowadays (inter)national security is most frequently jeopardized in the field of cyberspace.
Data is increasingly perceived as the black gold of the twenty-first century and, despite its fundamental differences with oil, the ways in which it is governed are still not well understood.
The global technological landscape is changing the interaction dynamics between governments and private actors. The capability to access, control, and exploit vast amounts of data provides a crucial strategic advantage in terms of “political power”, while deepening the digital economy. At the same time, international organizations and state actors are imposing new data regulations to introduce new standard-setting practices.
The rise of Artificial Intelligence applications is accelerating the pace and magnitude of the political, securitarian, and ethical challenges we are now struggling to manage in cyberspace and beyond. So far, the relationship between Artificial Intelligence and cyberspace has been investigated mostly in terms of the effects that AI could have on the digital domain, and thus on our societies. What has been explored less is the opposite relationship, namely, how the cyberspace geopolitics can affect AI.
Il governo degli Stati Uniti mette sotto accusa il più famoso motore di ricerca al mondo: “Monopolio che impedisce la concorrenza”. C’entrano gli accordi con Apple, ritenuti irregolari. È la causa più grande contro un’azienda del settore tecnologico.